Recombinant Proteins

Recombinant protein of recombinant protein company BlueGene Biotech is a protein that is produced by using DNA recombination technology. It refers to a protein product that is obtained by introducing the genes of one or more organisms (donors) into another organism (recipients) and then making them inherit and express according to people's wishes. The production of recombinant protein includes upstream technology and downstream technology.  Upstream technology means the design and construction of foreign gene recombination, cloning and expression vectors and gene engineering bacteria (cells). The downstream technology involves the large-scale culture of biological cells (genetically engineered bacteria or cells) containing recombinant foreign genes and the separation and purification process of recombinant proteins expressed by foreign genes. In the downstream process of the recombinant protein’s R&D and production, purification and freeze-drying also very important roles. The main processes of separation and purification are generally divided into cell fragmentation, fragment separation, concentration, pretreatment or preliminary separation and purification, and high-efficiency separation and purification. At present, the common-used expression vectors of recombinant proteins include prokaryotic cells (such as E. coli), eukaryotic cells (such as yeast), insect cells, and CHO cells, etc.

Recombinant Protein Expression Systems

Recombinant Protein Expression Systems
  • The commonly used prokaryotic expression system E.coli has the advantages of rapid expression, high expression amount, and good activity.

  • For fungal expression systems such as Pichia pastoris and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the expression conditions are not very demanding, which offers the advantage of post-translational modification of glycosylation.

  • Insect cell Sf9, which is easy to operate, has a smaller genome and less impact on subsequent protein purification, and also has the advantage of post-translational modifications. 

  • Mammalian cells, such as SP2 / 0293, CHO, etc., have low expression levels, but are closer to the three-dimensional structure of the native protein, with post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, phosphorylation, acetylation, methylation, etc.

How Recombinant Protein is Formed?

How Recombinant Protein is Formed?
  • In the cytoplasm of prokaryotic cells, DNA is translated into mRNA, which binds to the ribosome complex, and with the help of tRNA, is translated into amino acid sequences, which are then folded into active proteins.

  • In the eukaryotic cytoplasm, DNA is transcribed into mRNA, enters the endoplasmic reticulum, binds to the ribose complex, interacts with tRNA carrying codons and amino acids, is translated into amino acid sequences, and in the Golgi, the amino acid sequences are folded And modified into an active three-dimensional structural protein, and post-translationally modified by glycosylation, phosphorylation, etc., internalized into vesicles and secreted into the cytoplasm or extracellular.

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